Visual Inspection of Fire Alarm Devices

Q: A question came up recently on the NFPA 72 semi-annual visual inspections required for fire alarm system devices. Would the printed records from an intelligent fire alarm system suffice for the visual inspections on devices such as smoke detectors, pull stations and heat detectors?

A: I would say no, the printed records from an intelligent fire alarm system would not suffice for a visual inspection on the fire alarm system devices. Items such as the following must be visually inspected twice a year on a semi-annual basis:

Initiating Devices

  1. Duct Detectors
  2. Electromechanical Releasing Devices
  3. Fire-Extinguishing System(s) or Suppression

System(s) Switches

  1. Fire Alarm Boxes
  2. Heat Detectors
  3. Radiant Energy Fire Detectors
  4. Smoke Detectors

The reasoning for this decision is found in the NFPA 72 handbook, which states: “The visual inspection is made to ensure that there are no changes that effect equipment performance. Equipment performance can be affected by building modifications, occupancy changes, changes in environmental conditions, device location, physical obstructions, device orientation, physical damage, improper installation, degree of cleanliness, or other obvious problems that might not be indicated through electrical supervision.”

It is not uncommon to find ancillary hospital equipment placed or installed in such a way as to affect or obstruct the normal operation of some of these devices. Semi-annual visual inspections will find these issues before they affect the performance of the fire alarm system.

Generally speaking, the printed records from an intelligent fire alarm system would only suffice for documentation on the 2-year sensitivity testing requirement. Everything else would have to be confirmed through direct observation.