Fire Protection of Equipment Rooms

Q: What is the fire rating supposed to be in the walls of the hospital equipment rooms, such as the generator room, boiler room, chiller rooms, and electrical rooms? We have a disagreement as to what is required and your answer decides who is correct.

A: According to NFPA 110 (1999), section 5-2.1, generator rooms are required to have 2-hour fire rated barriers that protects the room from fire outside the room. Any 2-hour fire rated barrier is required to have 90-minute fire rated doors and frame and if there are any HVAC duct penetrations through the 2-hour barrier, then the HVAC duct opening needs to be protected in accordance with NFPA 90A Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating System, which would require a 90-minute fire damper. A boiler room is considered a hazardous area, and according to the 2000 edition of the LSC, sections 18/19.3.2.1, the hazardous area is required to be protected with 1-hour fire rated barriers if it is considered new construction, or 1-hour barriers if it is considered existing and is not protected with sprinklers. Existing boiler rooms that are protected with sprinklers only require smoke resistant walls. All door openings in a 1-hour barrier are required to be ¾ hour fire rated, with fire rated frames. However, unlike the 2-hour barrier, a 1-hour fire rated barrier for a hazardous area is not required to have any fire dampers in a HVAC duct penetration, unless the HVAC penetration is not fully ducted. Electrical rooms typically are not required by the LSC to have fire rated barriers (walls), however NFPA 13 (1999 edition) Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, section 5-13.11 does permit an electrical room to be protected with 2-hour fire rated barriers in lieu of being protected with sprinklers. Therefore if the room does have fire rated barriers for any reason (including local or state building codes) then it would need fire dampers in the HVAC duct penetration if it is 2-hour fire rated or greater. Chiller rooms typically do not require fire rated barriers, unless the chillers are fuel-fired, then they would require the same protection as the boilers. As always, please check with your local and state authorities to determine if there are other regulations that may affect this situation.

Good Luck!