Annual Fire Pump Test

Q: Is it required to dropped power to your electric driven fire pump while it is running to ensure it starts back up and continues to run on emergency power?

A: If you are referring to the annual fire pump flow test, the answer is yes. Section 8.3.3.4 of NFPA 25-2011 requires a simulated power failure while the pump is operating at peak capacity (150% of nameplate capacity) and confirm that the fire pump continues to operate at peak capacity under EM power. This means a second set of pitot readings are necessary while the pump is operating on EM power at peak capacity. Check with your contractor who conducts this test. Surprisingly, many contractors who perform the annual fire pump test fail to include this procedure.

Portable Fire Extinguishers

Q: In regards to fire extinguisher inspections… when the annual fire extinguisher maintenance is done, say in June, does the monthly fire extinguisher inspection still need to be completed?

A: Yes. According to NFPA 10-2010, there are distinctly different requirements for the annual maintenance and the monthly inspection. Typically, the annual maintenance does NOT include the actions required for monthly inspections, although there is no reason why the same person could not perform both duties during the annual maintenance process.

Annual Maintenance requires the following to be confirmed:

  • A thorough examination of the following:
    • Mechanical parts of all extinguishers
    • Physical appearance
    • Components of electrically monitored systems
    • Hoses on wheeled-type extinguishers completely uncoiled and examined for damage
  • Tamper seals on rechargeable extinguishers must be removed and replaced with new seals
  • For extinguishers that require a 12-year hydro-static test, once every 6-years the extinguisher must be emptied and subjected to an internal examination
  • A verification collar must be installed on the outside of the extinguisher, underneath the valve after an internal examination
  • CO2 hose assemblies must have a conductivity test

Monthly Inspection requires the following to be confirmed:

  • Location in designated place
  • No obstruction to access or visibility
  • Pressure gauge reading or indicator in the operable range or position
  • Fullness determined by weighing or hefting for self-expelling-type extinguishers, cartridge-operated extinguishers, and pump tanks
  • Condition of tires, wheels, carriage, hose, and nozzle for wheeled extinguishers
  • Indicator for non-rechargeable extinguishers using push-to-test pressure indicators

So, you can see an annual maintenance activity does not meet the requirement for a monthly inspection, but there should be no reason why the same person could not perform both duties.

Sprinkler Inventory

Q: We are a life safety service company that provides consultation services for multiple hospitals. We had a hospital go through a survey recently, and the surveyor wrote them up for not having an inventory of sprinkler heads. Would you know where we could find this requirement for this inventory?

A: The surveyor may be looking at NFPA 13-2010, section 6.2.9.7, which does require the facility to have a spare sprinkler list, which is based on the different types of sprinklers in your facility and the quantity of those sprinklers. While this is not the same as saying an inventory of the sprinkler heads is required, you do need to know the types and quantities of sprinklers in your facility.

Or the surveyor may be looking at NFPA 25-2011 section 5.2.1, which requires an annual inspection of all the sprinkler heads. Usually, the hospital will contract this out to a sprinkler contractor and often the report simply says “All sprinkler heads inspected”, or something like that. The problem is, how does the hospital know that the contractor actually inspected every sprinkler head in the hospital? Did the contractor enter every room, every closet, every office, every OR, every equipment room, etc. in the facility? Without a detailed inventory or documentation (such as drawings of sprinklered areas) showing the heads were inspected in the respective areas, what assurance does the hospital (and the surveyor) have that every head was inspected?

But to be sure, there is no direct NFPA standard that says “Thou shalt inventory every sprinkler”, but it is well within the right of the authorities to request documentation that assures how the facility documented the spare sprinkler list and that the contractor inspected every head.

Main Drain Tests- Part 1: Why Are They Required?

Main drain tests are required by section 9.7.5 of the 2000 edition of the Life Safety Code, which requires sprinklers systems to be tested and maintained according to NFPA 25 Standard for the Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, 1998 edition.  The purpose of a main drain test is covered in the Annex section A-9-2.6, of NFPA 25, which says:

“…(main) drains also are used to determine whether there is a major reduction in waterflow to the system, such as might be caused by major obstruction, a dropped gate, a valve that is almost fully closed, or a check valve clapper stuck to the valve seat. A large drop in the full flow pressure of the main drain (as compared to previous tests) normally is indicative of a dangerously reduced water supply caused by a valve in an almost fully closed position or other type of severe obstruction. After closing the drain, a slow return to normal static pressure is confirmation of the suspicion of a major obstruction in the waterway and should be considered sufficient reason to determine the cause of the variation. A satisfactory drain test (i.e., one that reflects the results of previous tests) does not necessarily indicate an unobstructed passage, nor does it prove that all valves in the upstream flow of water are fully opened. The performance of drain tests is not a substitute for a valve check on 100 percent of the fire protection valving.”

The Annex section A-9-2.6 also continues to describe what a main drain test is:

The main drain test is conducted in the following manner:

  1. Record the pressure indicated by the supply water gauge [Static Pressure]
  2. Close the alarm control valve on alarm valves
  3. Fully open the main drain valve
  4. After the flow has stabilized, record the residual (flowing) pressure indicated by the water supply gauge
  5. Close the main drain valve slowly
  6. Record the time taken for the supply water pressure to return to the original static (nonflowing) pressure
  7. Open the alarm control valve”

I find that many hospitals, especially the older hospitals, do not have the requisite pressure gauge, drain valve and a suitable drain to collect the substantial flow of water to properly conduct a main drain test. Also, I always recommend to my clients to shut off the fire pump and leave on the jockey pump during the main drain tests. Shutting off the fire pump for this test constitutes an impairment, and appropriate interim life safety measures must be considered, according to the organization’s policy.

Please be aware that a main drain test is required downstream of any control valve that has been closed, then opened. Also starting with the 2002 edition of NFPA 25, a single quarterly main drain test is required downstream of all backflow preventers in the system. This will be a requirement once the 2012 edition of the Life Safety Code is finally adopted.