Smoke Detectors Used for Door Release

Q: In our hospital, we have smoke compartment doors in the corridor that are held open with magnetic hold-open devices. When the fire alarm system is activated, the magnetic devices release and the doors automatically close. Are we required to have smoke detectors located within 5 feet of these doors, even though the smoke compartments on either side of the doors are fully protected with smoke detectors?

A: The Life Safety Code (2000 edition) requires your fire alarm system to be in compliance with section 9.6 which further requires compliance with NFPA 72-1999 National Fire Alarm Code. Section 2-10.6 of the National Fie Alarm Code states that smoke detectors that are part of an open area protection system that is covering the room, corridor or enclosed space on each side of the smoke door and that are located and spaced according to NFPA 72-1999, section 2-3.4, shall be permitted to accomplish smoke door release service. Therefore, if your smoke detectors actually meet the spacing requirements found in 2-3.4 on both sides of the smoke door, then you do not need to have a smoke detector mounted within 5 feet of the door to release the door in the event of an alarm.

Smoke Detectors in Hospitals

Q: Are smoke detectors required to be installed in the corridors of hospitals? I attended a seminar recently and the instructor said we did not need them in the corridors. We have them in corridors and patient sleeping rooms in our hospital and I thought the Code required them.

A. Generally speaking, the Life Safety Code (LSC) does not require smoke detectors to be installed in corridors or patient sleeping rooms of hospitals. (You need to be sure what your state and local codes require for smoke detection, as those building codes may have a different requirement than the LSC.) Actually, for hospitals, smoke detectors are only required in strategic locations to satisfy specific needs of fire safety features, and to compensate for other deficiencies where an equivalency is being sought.

The LSC does require smoke detectors within 5 feet of a fire rated or smoke compartment door that is held open by a mechanical device (19.2.2.2.6), in elevator lobbies and machine rooms where Phase I elevator recall has been installed (9.4.3.2), and in areas permitted to be open to the corridor that do not have direct supervision (19.3.6.1). In certain applications of 19.3.6.1, the corridor may need smoke detectors installed. The NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code does require a smoke detector above the fire alarm control panel in order to protect the panel in the event of a fire.

Equivalencies, such as the Traditional Equivalencies and the NFPA 101A Guide on Alternative Approaches to Life Safety Fire Safety Evaluation System (FSES), frequently rely upon smoke detectors to be installed throughout a smoke compartment to compensate for a deficiency to a life safety feature. When an equivalency is accepted by an Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ), the compensating changes (such as the installation of smoke detectors) must remain until the equivalency is no longer valid.

Limited care facilities (which are not hospitals) do have a requirement for smoke detectors in corridors (19.3.4.5.1) and new nursing homes are required to have smoke detectors installed in corridors (18.3.4.5.2) and patient sleeping rooms with certain combustible items, but these requirements do not apply to hospitals. The logic behind this LSC decision is a fire will be discovered quickly in hospitals where the staffing level is much higher. Remember: The requirements of the LSC are minimum requirements, and it is perfectly acceptable to exceed these minimum requirements.

Evacuation During a Fire Alarm

Q. Should a free standing medical office (business occupancy) be required to evacuate everyone when an alarm is pulled?  In this situation the building is a single story and has a sprinkler system.

A. Yes, generally speaking, occupants in free standing medical offices should evacuate the building whenever the fire alarm is activated, unless there are extenuating circumstances, such as testing of the fire alarm system has been announced. There are multiple references that support this requirement.

One of the goals of the NFPA 101-2000 Life Safety Code (LSC) is to provide for a reasonably safe movement of people in the event of an emergency, as identified in section 4.1.2. That supports the concept of keeping the occupants safe from fire and maintaining a safe egress from the building. Since the building you described is a business occupancy, chapter 39 of the LSC applies. Section 39.7.1 discusses the requirements for fire drills which applies to buildings with occupants of 500 or more, or 100 occupants above or below the level of ext discharge. Even if your building may not meet this occupant load requirement, you may have other fire drill requirements from another Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ), such as Joint Commission or your local fire marshal.

Section 39.7.1 refers to section 4.7 which discusses in detail about evacuation and relocation. The whole purpose of conducting fire drills is to prepare and train your staff for the proper response when an actual fire occurs. Therefore, the occupants in your free-standing medical office will need to evacuate from the building whenever the fire alarm activates under non-testing conditions.

It is better to get the people out safely and then determine what caused the alarm. It should be noted here, that you are not required to evacuate patients during a fire drill. During a drill, staff needs to demonstrate that they know and understand the procedures and pathway to evacuate the building and where the relocation rallying point is at once they get outdoors. They can use simulated patients or other staff members playing the role of patients to demonstrate this knowledge during drills.

This concept of evacuating the building in the event of fire does not apply to all occupancies, however. Most notably: healthcare occupancies (hospitals, nursing homes) and detention or correctional occupancies (prisons) have language that requires staff to be trained in the relocation of occupants to areas of refuge or smoke compartments.

Fire Alarm Systems

Q: Our hospital has an outpatient clinic attached via a hallway and connected to the hospital directly. When I am in the out-patient clinic you cannot hear the fire alarms going off in the hospital. Do the systems need to communicate? They are currently on 2 different systems.

A: No… the two systems are not required to communicate with each other unless the expectation is for staff at one location is to respond to fire alarms in the other location. However, it may be practical for the alarm to communicate in each other’s building, in some fashion. There may be key individuals (i.e. engineering staff, management staff, and executives) who may be in one location and if the alarm is activated in the other location, they should know about it. But this can also be accomplished using two-way radios or pagers.