Jan 15 2016

Visual Inspection of Fire Alarm Devices

Category: BlogBKeyes @ 12:00 am
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Q: A question came up recently on the NFPA 72 semi-annual visual inspections required for fire alarm system devices. Would the printed records from an intelligent fire alarm system suffice for the visual inspections on devices such as smoke detectors, pull stations and heat detectors?

A: I would say no, the printed records from an intelligent fire alarm system would not suffice for a visual inspection on the fire alarm system devices. Items such as the following must be visually inspected twice a year on a semi-annual basis:

Initiating Devices

  1. Duct Detectors
  2. Electromechanical Releasing Devices
  3. Fire-Extinguishing System(s) or Suppression

System(s) Switches

  1. Fire Alarm Boxes
  2. Heat Detectors
  3. Radiant Energy Fire Detectors
  4. Smoke Detectors

The reasoning for this decision is found in the NFPA 72 handbook, which states: “The visual inspection is made to ensure that there are no changes that effect equipment performance. Equipment performance can be affected by building modifications, occupancy changes, changes in environmental conditions, device location, physical obstructions, device orientation, physical damage, improper installation, degree of cleanliness, or other obvious problems that might not be indicated through electrical supervision.”

It is not uncommon to find ancillary hospital equipment placed or installed in such a way as to affect or obstruct the normal operation of some of these devices. Semi-annual visual inspections will find these issues before they affect the performance of the fire alarm system.

Generally speaking, the printed records from an intelligent fire alarm system would only suffice for documentation on the 2-year sensitivity testing requirement. Everything else would have to be confirmed through direct observation.

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Jan 01 2016

Visual Inspection of Fire Alarm Devices

Category: BlogBKeyes @ 12:00 am
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Q: A question came up recently on the NFPA 72 semi-annual visual inspections required for fire alarm system devices. Would the printed records from an intelligent fire alarm system suffice for the visual inspections on devices such as smoke detectors, pull stations and heat detectors?

A: I would say no, the printed records from an intelligent fire alarm system would not suffice for a visual inspection on the fire alarm system devices. Items such as the following must be visually inspected twice a year on a semi-annual basis:

Initiating Devices

  1. Duct Detectors
  2. Electromechanical Releasing Devices
  3. Fire-Extinguishing System(s) or Suppression

System(s) Switches

  1. Fire Alarm Boxes
  2. Heat Detectors
  3. Radiant Energy Fire Detectors
  4. Smoke Detectors

The reasoning for this decision is found in the NFPA 72 handbook, which states: “The visual inspection is made to ensure that there are no changes that effect equipment performance. Equipment performance can be affected by building modifications, occupancy changes, changes in environmental conditions, device location, physical obstructions, device orientation, physical damage, improper installation, degree of cleanliness, or other obvious problems that might not be indicated through electrical supervision.”

It is not uncommon to find ancillary hospital equipment placed or installed in such a way as to affect or obstruct the normal operation of some of these devices. Semi-annual visual inspections will find these issues before they affect the performance of the fire alarm system.

Generally speaking, the printed records from an intelligent fire alarm system would only suffice for documentation on the 2-year sensitivity testing requirement. Everything else would have to be confirmed through direct observation.

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Aug 28 2012

Main Drain Tests- Part 1: Why Are They Required?

Category: BlogBKeyes @ 5:00 am
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Main drain tests are required by section 9.7.5 of the 2000 edition of the Life Safety Code, which requires sprinklers systems to be tested and maintained according to NFPA 25 Standard for the Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, 1998 edition.  The purpose of a main drain test is covered in the Annex section A-9-2.6, of NFPA 25, which says:

“…(main) drains also are used to determine whether there is a major reduction in waterflow to the system, such as might be caused by major obstruction, a dropped gate, a valve that is almost fully closed, or a check valve clapper stuck to the valve seat. A large drop in the full flow pressure of the main drain (as compared to previous tests) normally is indicative of a dangerously reduced water supply caused by a valve in an almost fully closed position or other type of severe obstruction. After closing the drain, a slow return to normal static pressure is confirmation of the suspicion of a major obstruction in the waterway and should be considered sufficient reason to determine the cause of the variation. A satisfactory drain test (i.e., one that reflects the results of previous tests) does not necessarily indicate an unobstructed passage, nor does it prove that all valves in the upstream flow of water are fully opened. The performance of drain tests is not a substitute for a valve check on 100 percent of the fire protection valving.”

The Annex section A-9-2.6 also continues to describe what a main drain test is:

The main drain test is conducted in the following manner:

  1. Record the pressure indicated by the supply water gauge [Static Pressure]
  2. Close the alarm control valve on alarm valves
  3. Fully open the main drain valve
  4. After the flow has stabilized, record the residual (flowing) pressure indicated by the water supply gauge
  5. Close the main drain valve slowly
  6. Record the time taken for the supply water pressure to return to the original static (nonflowing) pressure
  7. Open the alarm control valve”

I find that many hospitals, especially the older hospitals, do not have the requisite pressure gauge, drain valve and a suitable drain to collect the substantial flow of water to properly conduct a main drain test. Also, I always recommend to my clients to shut off the fire pump and leave on the jockey pump during the main drain tests. Shutting off the fire pump for this test constitutes an impairment, and appropriate interim life safety measures must be considered, according to the organization’s policy.

Please be aware that a main drain test is required downstream of any control valve that has been closed, then opened. Also starting with the 2002 edition of NFPA 25, a single quarterly main drain test is required downstream of all backflow preventers in the system. This will be a requirement once the 2012 edition of the Life Safety Code is finally adopted.

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