May 30 2016

Fire Barriers in Ambulatory Healthcare Occupancies – Part 1

Q: We have built a new Wellness Center with physician offices, diagnostic areas, cafe, etc. and included in the facility is an Ambulatory Endoscopy Center. A question has been raised as to whether or not this Endo Unit needs a firewall separation. Where does the Life Safety Code discuss the requirements for Endo Units? What options do we have if we do not have the requisite fire barriers?

A: You won’t find the phrase Ambulatory Endoscopy Unit (or Endo unit) in the Life Safety Code, because the code deals with different occupancy designations, not different uses within those specific occupancies. You didn’t say, but I’m guessing the Endo Unit is classified as an ambulatory healthcare occupancy, as I suspect the patient is sedated and incapable of self-preservation. Another assumption is made that this unit is an outpatient unit, thereby supporting the thought it is an ambulatory healthcare occupancy. It appears you have an outpatient endoscopy unit that serves 4 or more patients that are incapable of self-preservation. That makes it an ambulatory healthcare occupancy designation. Ambulatory healthcare occupancies are required to be subdivided into at least 2 separate smoke compartments with a 1-hour fire rated barrier. The 1-hour fire rated barrier must extend from the floor to the floor or roof slab above, and openings (i.e. doors) must be at least 1¾ inch thick, solid-bonded wood core and be self-closing. Exceptions to the subdivision into two smoke compartments are if the ambulatory healthcare occupancy is less than 5,000 square feet and fully protected with smoke detectors; or if the ambulatory healthcare occupancy is less than 10,000 square feet and protected throughout by automatic sprinklers. Ambulatory healthcare occupancies must be separated from other occupancies (i.e. business occupancies) by a 1-hour fire rated barrier that extends from the floor to the floor or roof slab above. Doors in this barrier must be ¾ hour fire rated, self-closing, and positive latching. There are other fire barriers that could be part of the Endo Unit, such as fire barriers separating hazardous areas from occupied areas, and barriers separating exit enclosures from occupied areas.