Jun 14 2017

Annual Test on Fire Rated Door Assemblies

Category: Fire Doors,Questions and Answers,TestingBKeyes @ 12:00 am
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Q: In regards to the new annual fire rated door assembly inspection, are we to inspect every door that has a fire rating or the doors that are located in fire-rated walls? I have noticed that not all fire doors in the building are located in fire rated walls, according to my Life Safety drawings. What do you say?

A: It is not uncommon for fire-rated door assemblies to be found in walls and barriers that are not fire-rated. This is often due to conflicting building codes that require 20-minute fire rated doors in all corridors, or a misunderstanding by the design professional. But make no mistake: You are required to test and inspect those doors on an annual basis.

My interpretation is based on section 7.2.1.15.2 of the 2012 LSC which says: “Fire-rated door assemblies shall be inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 80…” This section of the LSC does not have any exceptions for fire-rated door assemblies that are located in walls and barriers that are not fire-rated.

Therefore, all fire-rated door assemblies must be inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 80 on an annual basis, regardless where they are located.

Another way of looking at this issue is to review section 4.6.12.3 of the 2012 LSC which says existing life safety features that are obvious to the public, if not required by the LSC, must be either maintained or removed. The interpretation of what’s ‘obvious to the public’ is certainly open for discussion, but most fire-rated door assemblies can be determined by looking at a fire rating label on the hinge-side edge of the door, and that is viewable by the public. Whether it is obvious or not is a matter of opinion, but if you take the hardline on that, then all fire-rated doors (with a fire rating label) have to be maintained even if they are not located in a fire-rated barrier.

Either way… I think the LSC is pretty clear… you need to test and inspect all fire rated door assemblies regardless if they are located in a fire rated barrier. And by the way, the first test of the side-hinged swinging fire doors is due in a couple weeks: July 5, 2017. Better have it completed by then.


Jun 05 2017

Poly Vinyl Mural on Fire Doors and Walls

Category: Doors,Fire Doors,Questions and Answers,WallsBKeyes @ 12:00 am
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Q: Is it permissible to completely cover a fire rated door in a hospital with a polyvinyl picture/mural? Also, is it permissible to cover a fire rated wall, from floor to ceiling in hospital with the same product?

A: No. You are not permitted to cover a fire-rated door with anything. Period. The reason why is, whatever is placed on the door will likely change the fire-resistive characteristics of the door and may likely allow the door to not last as long as it is designed.

Assuming the mural is newly installed, a poly-vinyl picture mural on the walls of the hospital may be permitted if it meets the requirements for interior finish. Class A interior finish is permitted on walls, and Class B is permitted in rooms where the capacity does not exceed four persons. A Class A material has a flame spread rating of 0 -25, and a Class B materials has a flame spread rating of 26 – 75.

Ask your supplier/vendor to provide the interior finish classification or the flame spread ratings to determine if you are compliant.


Mar 31 2017

Fire Door Smoke Detectors

Q: I have a life safety consultant doing our annual inspection, and he keeps saying that I need to have individual smoke detectors for my corridor fire rated doors. The corridors on both sides of these doors are completely protected with smoke detectors, but he says regardless, that area smoke detectors are required next to the doors. Is this correct?

A: No, I don’t believe what the consultant is telling you is correct. Section 17.7.5.6.1 of NFPA 72 (2010) allows for either area smoke detectors or complete corridor smoke detector protection to activate the release of a hold-open on a door serving a fire barrier or a smoke compartment barrier. So, in regards to the cross-corridor doors that are held open by magnets connected to the fire alarm system, you are permitted to have one of the following:

  • A smoke detector on either side of the door mounted within five feet of the door; or smoke detectors mounted on both sides of the door within five feet if the transom above the door is greater than 24 inches.
  • The entire corridor where the cross-corridor door is located is properly protected with smoke detectors. A smoke detector must then be located within 15 feet of the door. For mounting locations for an area protected with detectors, the detectors must be no more than 15 feet from the wall (this is based on one-half of the maximum spacing distance between detectors which is 30 feet). The cross-corridor doors must be considered ‘closed’ when designing the detector locations, so that constitutes a “wall” and a detector is required within 15 feet of that wall.

Where consultants and surveyors have problems is they see a cross-corridor door held open by a magnet, and then they do not see a detector within five feet, and they believe that is a violation of NFPA 72. What they don’t consider is the corridor is completely protected with smoke detectors and NFPA 72 (2010) 17.6.3.1.1. (1) allows a detector to be one-half of the maximum spacing.


Jan 26 2017

Fire Rated Door Assemblies

Category: Fire Doors,Questions and AnswersBKeyes @ 12:00 am
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Q: I recently attended a conference where the speaker in the Life Safety session talked about the fire rating of the doors. She spoke of having the fire information labels on the doors. When I returned to the hospital, I found I only have about half the doors in my facility with the fire-rating labels. What do I need to do about this? Do I assume that all the doors are rated the same?

A: Fire-rated doors assemblies are required to have labels on the doors and on the door frames identifying that they are indeed fire-rated. The labels can be located on the side of the door or on the top of the door. Non-fire-rated door assemblies are not required to have any labels since there is no requirement for them to be fire-rated. In your case, it is reasonable to assume that not all door assemblies in your facility are actually required to be fire-rated and therefore do not have labels. You need to refer to your Life Safety drawings (or your original construction documents if your LS drawings are not accurate) to determine the location of the fire-rated doors assemblies in your facility, and then examine those door assemblies for compliance with the labeling requirements.

As a side note, I’ve been told by Mr. Jerry Rice, VP of DH Pace Company, Inc., that there is one exception to having labels on both the door and the frame. This would be on a ‘fire door assembly’ that comes from the factory as a complete assembly. These types of fire doors only have one label (none on the frame), and it is located under the top cap. The only sticker on the door is on the top cap that reads something like “Fire label under cap – Remove to view”. So, you would need to get on a ladder and take the cap off with a screwdriver if you want to see the label. Some AHJs deem that process is ‘not readily visible’ and push back, but most know of the door manufacturing process and accept the practice.

I personally have not seen these types of door assemblies in hospitals, but you need to be aware that they may be part of your facility.

 


Jan 18 2017

Fire Door Maintenance

Category: Fire Doors,Questions and AnswersBKeyes @ 12:00 am
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Q: If a door is a fire-rated door is it required to be maintained as a rated door in compliance with NFPA 80, regardless if its location doesn’t require a rated door? I was told by a facilities employee that there isn’t any information that he can find that states this. Really my fight with him is simple that a fire rated door regardless of location and function needs to meet the standards at all times i.e. door closer, holes in door and frame etc.

A: According to the 2012 Life Safety Code, section 8.3.3.1, openings required to have a fire protection rating must meet the requirements of NFPA 80. So, based on this passage, if the fire door is installed in a non-rated barrier, one could assume that testing the fire doors would not be required.

But one would be wrong. According to section 19.2.2.2.1 of the 2012 LSC, doors must be in compliance with section 7.2.1 of the same code. Section 7.2.1.15.2 says fire rated doors assemblies must be inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 80. This section does not differentiate whether the door is in a fire-rated barrier or not. Therefore, all fire rated doors must be inspected and tested (and maintained) in accordance with NFPA 80.

The requirements of the occupancy chapter always over-rule the requirements of a core chapter when the two chapters conflict. So, in this case, section 19.2.2.2.1 has precedence over section 8.3.3.1, and requires all fire rated door assemblies, regardless if the door is installed in a fire-rated barrier or not, to be tested and inspected in accordance with NFPA 80.

You win… your friend loses… Start planning on testing all of the fire doors and have your first test completed by July 5, 2017.


Jan 13 2017

Fire Rated Door Frames

Category: Fire Doors,Life Safety Code UpdateBKeyes @ 12:00 am
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Q: We have a mechanical room door that is ¾-hour rated. The mechanical room is a 10 foot x 10 foot room with two electrical panels and a small gas fired heating unit. The metal door frame does not have a rating label on it. Does the frame need to be ¾-hour rated?

A: Anytime you have a fire-rated door assembly, the frame needs to be labeled as a fire-rated frame. Door frames typically (but not always) just have a label that says it is a fire-rated frame without any time associated with it. Those frames that are just labeled as being fire-rated are good for 3-hours, according to information that I seen on the manufacturer’s website. After 3-hours, then the frame needs to be labeled with the specific fire-rating needed.

The room that you are describing is required to be classified as a hazardous room since there is a fuel-fired heating appliance in the room. A hazardous room in a healthcare occupancy under existing conditions is required to have 1-hour fire rated walls with a ¾-hour fire-rated self-closing and positively latching door if the room is not sprinklered. However if the existing room is protected with sprinklers then the Life Safety Code allows you to have smoke resistant walls with a non-rated smoke resistant self-closing positively latching door.

If the hazardous room qualifies as new construction (or renovation), then the room must be constructed with 1-hour fire rated walls with a ¾-hour fire-rated self-closing positively latching door and the room must be protected with automatic sprinklers.

Even if the fire rated door that you refer to is not required, you must maintain it as such, which means the frame must also be labeled as being a fire-rated frame.


Mar 30 2015

Temporary Signs on Fire Doors

Category: Doors,Fire Doors,Questions and Answers,SignsBKeyes @ 6:00 am
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Q: Are hand-made temporary directional signs permitted to be taped to fire doors? We had a surveyor tell us that nothing can be taped to a fire door.

A: Yes, temporary signs are permitted to be taped to a fire door, but they are limited in size. NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows, 1999 edition, section 1-3.5, says informational signs installed on the surface of fire doors are permitted. The total area of the attached signs is not to exceed 5 percent of the area of the face of the fire door to which they are attached. Signs are required to be attached to fire doors using an adhesive. Mechanical attachments such as screws or nails are not permitted. Signs are not to be installed on glazing material in fire doors, and signs are not to be installed on the surface of fire doors so as to impair or otherwise interfere with the proper operation of the fire door. With a fire door size of 80” x 32” (approximate guess of the fire door in question), a single 8½ x 11 sheet of paper is well below the 5 percent maximum which the code permits. You state that the paper sign was observed to be attached to the door with adhesive, so it appears it meets the requirements for signage on fire doors. Sounds like a case for an appeal or clarification.     


Feb 16 2015

Force to Open a Fire Door

Category: Doors,Fire Doors,Questions and AnswersBKeyes @ 6:00 am
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Q: What is the permitted force to open a fire door? What kind of means can be used to test this onsite?

A: The answer to your question is found in section 7.2.1.4.5 of the 2000 edition of the Life Safety code, which says: “The forces required to fully open any door manually in a means of egress shall not exceed 15 lbf to release the latch, 30 lbf to set the door in motion, and 15 lbf to open the door to the minimum required width. Opening forces for interior side-hinged or pivot-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed 5 lbf. These forces shall be applied at the latch stile. Exception #1: The opening force for existing doors in existing buildings shall not exceed 50 lbf applied to the latch side. Exception #2: The opening forces for horizontal sliding doors shall be as provided in Chapters 22 and 23. Exception #3: The opening forces for power-operated doors shall be a provided in 7.2.1.9.” I am not an expert in the available tools to measure lbs. of force, but a good-old fashion fish scale should do the job. Since you asked specifically for fire doors, I looked at NFPA 80 but did not find anything that would contradict the above section.